|Other encyclopedia topics:||A-Ag Ah-Ap Aq-Az B-Bk Bl-Bz C-Cg Ch-Co Cp-Cz D-Di Dj-Dz E-Ep Eq-Ez F G H-Hf Hg-Hz I-In Io-Iz J K L-Ln Lo-Lz M-Mf Mg-Mz N O P-Pl Pm-Pz Q R S-Sh Si-Sp Sq-Sz T-Tn To-Tz U V W X Y Z 0-9|
|Contents of this page:|
Definition Return to top
Rabies is an often deadly viral infection that is mainly spread by infected animals.
Causes Return to top
Rabies is spread by infected saliva that enters the body through a bite or broken skin. The virus travels from the wound to the brain, where it causes swelling, or inflammation. This inflammation leads to symptoms of the disease. Most rabies deaths occur in children.
In the past, human cases in the United States usually resulted from a dog bite, but recently, more cases of human rabies have been linked to bats and raccoons. Although dog bites are a common cause of rabies in developing countries, there have been no reports of rabies caused by dog bites in the United States for a number of years due to widespread animal vaccination.
Other wild animals that can spread the rabies virus include:
Very rarely, rabies has been transmitted without an actual bite. This is believed to have been caused by infected saliva that has gotten into the air.
The United Kingdom had once completely eradicated rabies, but recently, rabies-infected bats have been found in Scotland.
Symptoms Return to top
The actual time between infection and when you get sick (called the "incubation period") ranges from 10 days - 7 years. The average incubation period is 3 - 7 weeks.
Symptoms may include:
Exams and Tests Return to top
If an animal bites you, try to gather as much information about the animal as possible. Call your local animal control authorities to safely capture the animal. If rabies is suspected, the animal will be watched for signs of rabies.
A special test called immunofluorescence is used to look at the brain tissue after an animal is dead. This test can reveal whether or not the animal had rabies.
The same test can be used to check for rabies in humans, using a piece of skin from the neck. Doctors may also look for the rabies virus in your saliva or spinal fluid.
Treatment Return to top
Clean the wound well with soap and water, and seek professional medical help. You'll need a doctor to thoroughly clean the wound and remove any foreign objects. Most of the time, stitches should not be used for animal bite wounds.
If there is any risk of rabies, you will be given a series of a preventive vaccine. This is generally given in five doses over 28 days.
Most patients also receive a treatment called human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG). This is given the day the bite occured.
There is no known effective treatment for people with symptoms of a rabies infection.
Outlook (Prognosis) Return to top
It's possible to prevent rabies if immunization is given within 2 days of the bite. To date, no one in the United States has developed rabies when given the vaccine promptly and appropriately.
Once the symptoms appear, few people survive the disease. Death from respiratory failure usually occurs within 7 days after symptoms start.
Possible Complications Return to top
Untreated, rabies can lead to coma and death.
In rare cases, some people may have an allergic reaction to the rabies vaccine.
When to Contact a Medical Professional Return to top
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if an animal bites you.
Prevention Return to top
To help prevent rabies:
References Return to top
Manning SE, Rupprecht CE, Fishbein D, et al. Human rabies prevention. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; May 23, 2008. No. RR-3.
Weber EJ. Rabies. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 6th ed. St Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2006:chap 129.Update Date: 9/28/2008 Updated by: Jatin M. Vyas, PHD, MD, Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.