Pozzolanas: rice husk ash and pulverised fuel ash
Other leaflets in this series deal in more detail with the production, properties and utilization
of pozzolana cements and with testing and performance standards.
References and further reading
Alternatives to Portland Cement Practical Action Technical Brief
Additives to Clay: Organic additives derived from Natural Sources, Practical Action
Additives to Clay: Minerals and synthetic additives, Practical Action Technical Brief
Mud Plasters and Renders: An introduction Practical Action Technical Brief,
Clay as a binder Practical Action Technical Brief,
How to Make Stabilised Soil Blocks, Technical Brief by Practical Action Southern
*Earth construction, A comprehensive guide, CRATerre, Practical Action Publishing,
Building with Earth, CRATerre, Mud Village Society, Delhi, India, 1990
*Building with Earth, A handbook, 2nd Ed., J. Norton, Practical Action Publishing,
*Appropriate Building Materials, A Catalogue of Potential Solutions, R. Stulz, K.
Mukerji, Practical Action Publishing/SKAT, 1993
Soil Preparation Equipment (product information), by Kiran Mukerji et al, GTZ,
Eschborn, Germany, 1991
Earth Building Materials and Techniques, Select bibliography, CRATerre, GTZ,
Eschborn, Germany, 1991.
The basics of compressed earth blocks, CRATerre,GTZ, Eschborn, Germany, 1991
Stabilisers and Mortars (for stabilised soil blocks) product information, by Kiran
Mukerji, CRATerre, GTZ, 1994
Compressed Earth Blocks: Vol. 1,Manual of Production, Vince Rigassi, CRATerre-
EAG, GTZ, 1995
Earthen Architecture, Hands On Brief, Practical Action / TVE, Series 1,
Rammed Earth Structures Keable & Keable Practical Action Publishing 2011
Pozzolanas- an introduction Practical Action Technical Brief
Testing methods for pozzolanas Practical Action Technical Brief
The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, F.M. Lea, Edward Arnold, London, 3rd Edn,
Building Materials in Developing Countries, R.J.S. Spence, and D.J. Cook, John Wiley
& Sons, New York, 1983.
Cement Replacement Materials. R.N. Swamy, R.N. (Ed.), Surrey University
Press/Blackie & Sons, 1986.
Small-scale Production of Cementitious Materials, R.J.S. Spence, Practical Action
Specification for Calcined Clay Pozzolana (2nd revision), Indian Standard IS 1344:
1981, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India
Pozzolanas - Calcined Clays & Shales, and Volcanic Ash Practical Action Technical
The Development of CP40 Pozzolanic Cement in Cuba, Practical Action / CIDEM
Rice Husk Ash Cement: Progress in development and application , R. Smith,
Practical Action Publishing, 1984.
Rice-Husk Ash Cements: Their development and applications, D. Cook, UNIDO,
Concrete Incorporating Rice-Husk Ash: Compressive Strength and Chloride-Ion
Penetrability, N. Bouzoubaâ & B. Fournier, July 2001, MTL 2001-5 (TR),
Research Fly Ash Project, N. Vimuktanon,
Appropriate Use of Pozzolana Derived from Agro-waste Using Labour-Based
Appropriate Technology, P. Nimityongskul & F. Gleeson,