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< prev - next > Food processing Juices and drinks KnO 100306_Toddy palm wine (Printable PDF)
Toddy & palm wine
Practical Action
Packaging and storage
Packaging is usually only required to keep the product for its relatively short shelf-life. This is
usually clean glass or plastic bottles. The product should be kept in a cool place away from
direct sunlight.
Other fermented plant saps
Pulque is the national drink in Mexico, where, it is claimed, it originated with the early Aztecs.
Pulque is a milky, slightly foamy, acidic and somewhat viscous beverage. It is obtained by
fermentation of aguamiel, which is the name given to the juices of various cacti, notably Agave
atrovirens and A. americana which are often called the “Century plant” in English. Pulque
contains between six and seven percent alcohol. The beverage made from distilling pulque is
called “Mezcal. The juices are extracted from the plants when they are eight to ten years old
and fermentation takes place spontaneously, although occasionally the juices are inoculated with
a starter from previous fermentations. The juice is allowed to ferment naturally. It is a mixed
fermentation although yeast (Saccharomyces carbajali) is the main actor. Lacto-bacillus
plantarum produce lactic acid and the viscosity of pulque is caused by the activity of two species
of Leuconostoc which produce dextrans
Ulanzi (Bamboo wine)
Ulanzi is fermented bamboo sap obtained by tapping the young bamboo shoots during the rainy
season. It is clear, whitish drink with a sweet and alcoholic flavour. The bamboo shoots should
be young to achieve a high yield of sap. The growing tip is removed and a container fixed in
place to collect the sap. The container should be clean to prevent contamination of the fresh
sap which may produce off-flavours. The raw material is an excellent substrate for microbial
growth and fermentation starts immediately after collection. Fermentation can take between five
and twelve hours depending on the strength of the final product desired. Packaging is usually
only required to keep the product for its relatively short shelf life.
Basi (Sugar cane wine)
Basi is a sugar cane wine made in the Philipppines. It is made by fermenting boiled, freshly
extracted, sugar cane juice. A dried powdered starter is used to start the fermentation. The
mixture is left for up to three months to ferment and up to one year to age. The final product is
a light brown colour and has a sweet and a sour flavour. A similar product is made in Japan
called shoto sake.
Muratina is an alcoholic drink made from sugar cane and muratina fruit in Kenya. The fruit is
cut in half, sun dried and boiled in water. The water is removed and the fruit sun dried again.
The fruit is added to a small amount of sugar cane juice and incubated in a warm place. The
fruit is removed from the juice after 24 hours and sun dried. The fruit is now added to a barrel
of sugar cane juice which is allowed to ferment for between one and four days. The final product
has a sour alcoholic taste.
References and further reading
Fermented Fruits and Vegetables: A Global Perspective, FAO,1998
Vino de Frutas: Serie Procesamiento de Alimentos 6, ITDG Latin America, 1998
Fruit Processing, a selection of Practical Action Technical Briefs
Fruit Waste Utilisation, Practical Action Technical Brief
Juices and Drinks, a selection of Practical Action Technical Briefs
Principles and practices of small and medium-scale fruit juice processing. FAO Agricultural
Services Bulletin 146, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),
Technical manual on small-scale processing of fruits and vegetables, Food and Agriculture