page 1
page 2 page 3
page 4
< prev - next > Food processing Snack foods Gum Sweets (Printable PDF)
Gum sweets
Practical Action
Gelatine has two main uses in the production of confectionery: as a whipping agent, or as a
gelling agent in itself. It is very common for both properties to apply to a single gelatine; thus
one type of gelatine is often suitable in assisting the incorporation of air into the mixture, whilst
another type may be relevant for its stronger gelling capacity.
Bloom gradings are often referred to when comparing the relative gelling strengths of different
samples. Readings are taken using the Bloom gelometer, which measures the strength of gels at
a predetermined concentration (6.66% in weight), at a fixed temperature (10°C). The apparatus
is designed in a way that, by successively adding more product, a depression exactly 4mm deep
forms in the surface of the gelatine gel. The combined weight of the apparatus, including the
piston, is the same as the total weight needed to produce the surface depression, and thus the
reading in grams translates to Bloom degrees:
Bloom Degrees
Amount in grams
In the manufacture of confectionary, gelatine is widely used as :
- an emulsifier;
- a fat dispersant;
- a whipping agent in the production of aerated sweets;
- a gelling agent in the manufacture of gums.
In general 110-120° Bloom degrees are used (in Peru). It is worth
remembering that gelatine is highly sensitive to temperature, and
must not therefore be exposed to prolonged heating during the
production process.
To allow the gelatine to dissolve effectively, it should first be
soaked: 1 part gelatine to 2 parts water, placed in bain-maries
until fully dissolved.
Table 2 : Common problems
Syneresis, or
Excessive inversion
Use liquid glucose rather than simply relying
upon the inversion caused by cream of tartar. A
50:50 sugar-glucose ratio is sufficient.
Excess of reductive
Insufficient reductive
Insufficient gelatine
If you are not using inverted sugar, reduce the
amount of glucose.
Increase the amount of glucose, or prolong
boiling time, adding more water along with the
cream of tartar.
Increase the amount: it can inhibit crystalisation.
Low quantity of total
They should range from 78 and 82%.