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< prev - next > Manufacturing handicraft process industries Metalworking KnO 100340_Blacksmithing (Printable PDF)
Practical Action
Shaping/ Deforming Tools
All tools to deform malleable iron or steel consist of clams, hot and cold sets, various tongs
for handling the work piece and, of course, hammers. These are illustrated as follows,
Sledge Hammer Very Heavy hammer usually used by the blacksmiths
assistant to work the large pieces of metal.
Cross Peen Hammer Smaller hammer with two ends for different effects.
Used in most forging processes.
Hot Chisel Used for cutting hot metal, by striking with a hammer. This tool
is not hardened and should not be used to cut cold material, only heated.
Cold Chisel Used to cut cold material, never hot material. This tool is
hardened and tempered so it is sharp and strong so it can cut cold material.
Hot set Similar to a chisel but with a long handle. It is usually struck by a
sledgehammer operated by the blacksmiths assistant. Not for cold material.
Cold set This is used for cold material as the name suggests. It again has
a long handle like the hot set. Again it is struck by a sledgehammer. The
cold set looks similar to the hot set apart from its thickness and angle of
Round Punch Creates a round hole by driving the punch through a sheet
of hot material. Alternative to the drill.
Tongs Used to hole material when it has been hated and is ready for
work. These can be made in the forge, for different pieces of work. The
heads can be shaped to grip different sizes and shapes of material.
Bottom Fuller Normally used with a top filler, to create rounds or indents
in material.
Top Fuller Used to make grooves in hot metal. Both the top and bottom
fuller can be made from mild steel.
Figure 4: Tools Required
Mechanical Tools
There are many varieties of mechanical tools,
which might be useful amongst which are; a fly-
press, drilling machine, drop hammers and tilt
hammers can be used, powered by a motor or
Work Materials
The majority of material used by blacksmiths is
that obtained from scrap yards and old cars.
Sometimes materials may be bought in but often
it is not necessary, as there are other materials,
which can be reused.
Figure 5: A mechanical tilt hammer
using old car components.